Impact News

The Conference for the Adoption of the Agreed Text of the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the CBD text on 22 May 1992, documented in the Nairobi Final Act for the Adoption of the Agreed Text of the Convention on Biological Diversity. On 29 December 1993, International Day for Biological Diversity (IDB) was first established by the Second Committee of the UN General Assembly (the date of entry into force of the Convention on Biological Diversity). Coinciding with many holidays, so in December 2000, the UN General Assembly adopted 22 May as the IDB. This year’s IDB theme is “Be Part of the Plan”. This theme shows an urgent appeal to halt and reverse biodiversity decline. It encourages governments, indigenous peoples, local communities, non-governmental organisations, lawmakers, businesses, and individuals to showcase how they support the implementation of the biodiversity plan. Everyone has a role to play and, thus, can be part of the plan. Furthermore, this article will discuss the critical role of biodiversity, its conservation challenges, the biodiversity framework, and how we can support biodiversity conservation plans.

Biodiversity is essential in maintaining ecosystem function, food security, and human well-being. Urban biodiversity conservation is critical for sustainable development, mitigating habitat destruction, and supporting complex city ecological communities (Paul et al., 2023). Biodiversity is also essential for food security, providing genetic resources for crop and animal improvement, maintaining soil fertility, and supporting ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling (Sufiyan, 2022). In addition, biodiversity is critical to essential ecosystem functions such as maximum productivity, water use efficiency, and carbon use efficiency, demonstrating the importance of maintaining ecosystem multifunctionality (Yan et al., 2023)

However, several challenges globally threaten these critical roles. In general, climate change, human-wildlife conflict, poaching, deforestation, and habitat fragmentation often threaten biodiversity. These threats have led to a decline in biodiversity in many parts of the world. The loss of biodiversity has been enormous globally in recent decades. A comprehensive study revealed that global wildlife populations have declined by more than 50% in recent decades, mainly due to less than 3% of the total population (Leung et al., 2022). IPBES (2019) states that extinction threatens about 25% of animal and plant species, and about 1 million will face extinction within a few decades. 

Global parties have adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework by 196 countries at the UN Conference on Biodiversity (COP15) to address these challenges in December 2022. The framework includes 23 targets for 2030 and four goals for 2050. Some of the 2030 targets include 30 per cent of land and ocean conservation, 30 per cent restoration of degraded ecosystems, halving the influx of invasive species, and reducing harmful subsidies by $500 billion/year. Four main goals will be achieved by 2050: ecosystem and species health, including halting human-caused species extinctions, sustainable use of biodiversity, equitable benefit sharing, and implementation and funding, including closing the biodiversity funding gap of $700 billion per year.

Each party can participate according to their respective roles in the plan. Governments are responsible for creating and implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans that align with international frameworks such as the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), allocating funds for conservation projects, and integrating biodiversity considerations into broader policy areas, such as agriculture, forestry, and urban development. Indigenous and local communities can play an essential role in conservation through their traditional knowledge and sustainable practices. Involving indigenous and local communities in decision-making can lead to better conservation outcomes (Dawson et al., 2021), respect their rights, and incorporate their knowledge. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can facilitate the implementation of biodiversity plans by providing expertise, raising awareness, and advocating for policy changes. They can also ensure that conservation efforts are inclusive and effective (Newing et al., 2023) and hold governments and businesses accountable for their environmental impacts. Lawmakers can create and amend laws to protect biodiversity, ensure sustainable land use, and regulate harmful activities. Businesses can support biodiversity conservation by implementing sustainable practices, reducing environmental impacts, and investing in conservation initiatives. For example, they implement corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs that protect natural habitats and support conservation projects. Individuals can contribute through everyday actions, such as reducing waste, using sustainable products, and supporting conservation organisations. Communities can also engage in community science projects and volunteer in local conservation efforts.

One of the many success stories of collaborative efforts in biodiversity conservation is Proboscis Monkey Conservation in Indonesia. Yayasan Sahabat Bekantan Indonesia (SBI) adopted collaborative resource governance to protect proboscis monkeys on Curiak Island. This collaboration involves various stakeholders, including local communities, NGOs, and government agencies, leading to successful conservation efforts (Fajrina et al., 2022). Additionally, Ecotourism Cooperatives in Mexico, specifically at El Verde Camacho, a small conservation site near Mazatlan, also illustrate the success of the conservative collaboration. There, a cooperative formed by community members, with support from government officials, generated significant socio-economic development through the conservation and management of coastal wetlands and endangered species, such as olive ridley sea turtles (Olmos-Martínez et al., 2020). Additionally, a partnership between rice farmers and conservation professionals in California’s Central Valley focused on migratory bird conservation. This collaboration promotes mutual learning, trust-building and knowledge integration, resulting in new practices and improved conservation outcomes (Hale et al., 2021).

At RDI, we are committed to encouraging adopting sustainable practices to conserve biodiversity through our centre: Environment, Agriculture, and Forestry Resilience (EAFOR) Centre. EAFOR’s role is demonstrated through research, policy briefs, and disseminating awareness and knowledge through articles, webinars, and hands-on training to communities. For example, the research on Ibu Kota Nusantara (IKN) Forest City Planning aims to review the IKN Master Plan, which considers biodiversity conservation aspects. RDI has also researched Build Indonesia to Take Care of Nature for Sustainability, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity loss in Indonesia. In addition to research, we are conducting an ASEAN Webinar Series on wetland management to support biodiversity conservation with partners from the University of the Philippines Los Banos (UPLB) and the Southern Institute of Water Resources Research (SIWRR). Through these activities, we continue to play an important role in encouraging and ensuring the wider and sustainable conservation of biodiversity.

Written by: Ilham Setiawan Noer and Krisan Valerie Sangari (EAFOR Intern) 

The post From Challenges to Success: How We Can Support Biodiversity Conservation appeared first on Resilience Development Initiative.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *